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| Points: 180 | Last online: 05.31.2017
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    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "It brought new syncopated rhythms" 05.31.2017

      A Tribute To The Late American Composer Eubie Blake
      Blake's music is featured in the Broadway revival, Shuffle Along. Our tribute features LED Canopy Light live performances of his songs and interviews with pianist Dick Hyman, among others. Originally broadcast in '98. TERRY GROSS, HOST: This is FRESH AIR. I'm Terry Gross. On this July Fourth, we're going to talk about the life and music of a great American composer Eubie Blake. His music is being revived in the Broadway show "Shuffle Along" about the making of Blake's 1921 musical of the same name. And a new album called "Sissle And Blake Sing Shuffle Along" collects 1921 recordings of songs from the show, including some recorded by Blake and the show's lyricist Noble Sissle and this Blake piano roll. (SOUNDBITE OF EUBIE BLAKE SONG, "SHUFFLE ALONG MEDLEY") GROSS: The 1921 musical "Shuffle Along" not only left us with great music, it changed Broadway. It was created by and starred African-Americans. It brought new syncopated rhythms and dances to Broadway and even helped launch the Harlem Renaissance.
      We're going to listen back to the program on Blake that we produced in 1998 as part of our series on American popular song. It features pianist Dick Hyman and singer Vernel Bagneris performing songs by Blake. Vernel has performed on Broadway, co-created and co-starred in a Jelly Roll Morton review and the black vaudeville review "One More Time." He was in the HBO series "Treme." Dick Hyman is an expert in the piano styles of the teens, 20s, and 30s and has been the composer and music director on many films, including a few Woody Allen movies. We'll hear about the impact of Eubie Blake's work LED Canopy Light and the obstacles he faced as an African-American composer from theater historian Robert Kimball. He helped rediscover Blake in the late 1960s and co-authored the book "Reminiscing With Sissle And Blake." Eubie Blake not only wrote musicals, he wrote for vaudeville. We'll start with one of his vaudeville songs written with lyricist Noble Sissle.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "Audio produced for Morning Edition by Kerrie Hillman" 05.31.2017

      A Romance That Began With A Mistake
      Claudia and Bill on their wedding day, July 12, 1975.It was June 1973. Claudia Maraviglia was working at a bank. Bill Dewane, a bank customer, had recently suffered a serious spinal cord injury that left him partially paralyzed. "Were you worried at all about marrying a man with a disability?" he asks Claudia, 66. "I really wasn't. I just felt like you LED Flood Light were still you. Your accident was pretty traumatic and you've always said you've changed after that," she says. Before his accident, Bill says, he wasn't very nice. "I was a hard ass," he says. "I was not the type of person that I think you would have wanted to meet. But you get a chance to lay in bed for six months and re-evaluate who you are. It was ... an opportunity to change the way I was." "Your most enduring trait to me is your determination. You just will not give up," Claudia says. "I notice our daughters have that, too." Bill says he suspects Claudia puts him first. "No, I put us first," Claudia says. "What's best for us." "You've said that, but my disability, it's getting worse. You should opt out," he says. "That's what for better or for worse means," she says. "What are you hoping for us as we enter this final chapter?" "The little pillow that you have that says, 'If you live to be 100, I'd like to be 100 less one day,' " he says. "Yeah, but I don't want that," she says. "Well, I'm sorry. You look at the mortality tables," he says. "You statistician you," she says, laughing. "You've very loved. I hope you know that — even though you are sometimes a pain." Audio produced for Morning Edition by Kerrie Hillman. StoryCorps is a national nonprofit LED Flood Light that gives people the chance to interview friends and loved ones about their lives. These conversations are archived at the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress, allowing participants to leave a legacy for future generations. Learn more, including how to interview someone in your life, at . <h5 class="hdr">Correction</h5> A previous Web version of this story said the Dewanes were married after about three months of dating. They were engaged after about three months.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "What can we learn from the reading habits of a creative" 05.27.2017

      What can we learn from the reading habits of a creative and enormously influential scientist? A new by Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen and Simon DeDeo offers the first quantitative analysis of Darwin's book list, investigating the extent to which his decisions about what to read reflected exploration. That is, to what extent was Darwin systematically exposing himself to ideas that might be surprising in LED Panel Light of what he'd previously read? And to what extent did these habits change throughout this period of his career, as his Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection was beginning to take shape? To answer these questions, the authors used techniques from machine learning, statistics and information theory to analyze the full text of most LED Panel Light books on Darwin's list, yielding multi-dimensional representations of the content of each book and a quantitative method for estimating the LED Canopy Light overlap in general content across books. The analyses revealed distinct epochs in Darwin's reading habits, including an initial period in which he delved more deeply into topics he had already encountered, and a final period, leading up to the publication of On the Origin of Species, in which he engaged in greater exploration. Rather than narrowing his focus or shielding his theorizing LED Panel Light from new ideas, his later years were marked by breadth and novelty. 3. Darwin shared his birthday — Feb. 12, 1809 — with another revolutionary figure: Abraham Lincoln. Where the first transformed how we understand ourselves in relation to other species, the second changed the way we understand ourselves in relation to other humans. In an adapted from his book Angels and Ages, writer Adam Gopnik encapsulates Lincoln's and Darwin's monumental contributions like this: <blockquote class="edTag"> "Lincoln and Darwin can be seen as symbols of the two pillars of the society we live in: one representing liberal democracy and a faith in armed republicanism and government of the people, the other the human sciences, a belief that objective knowledge about human history and the human condition, who we are and how we got here, exists. This makes them, plausibly, 'heroes'." </blockquote> So take advantage of Feb.12 to celebrate Darwin, the human sciences, and scientific discovery. And, if you're so inclined, tip your hat to Lincoln, too. Tania Lombrozo is a psychology professor at the University of California, Berkeley. She writes about psychology, cognitive science and philosophy, with occasional forays into parenting and veganism. You can keep up with more of what she is thinking on

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "It involves driving through some contested territory" 05.27.2017

      THOMPKINS: That's absolutely true. I've thought about that man so many times, I have to say, and especially on that night. Because you know, a few weeks ago, some other reporters and I, we got word that the rebel leader, Laurent Nkunda, was going to be at this town called Rutshuru, which is north of Goma. So its a few hours drive, so we LED High Mast Lamp went up there and we waited for him. And we waited and waited for hours and he didn't show up. And so then, by phone he invited us to his headquarters in another town called Kichanga which is several hours drive from where we were. And so we thought, OK, yeah. We could do this you know. Sure. It involves driving through some contested territory, and sure, we might need a United Nations escort for a little bit of the way. But of course, we'll be able to find this town on our own by nightfall. And the truth of the matter is, we gave it our best shot, but we didn't count on the mud. And you know it rains everyday here and this is very sort of lush, heavy forested area. And so we're driving through and the mud is getting deeper and deeper and sure enough, we get stuck. And you get out into this mud and it is knee-deep mud, Neal - knee-deep mud. And it makes the sucking sound when you walk, like (unintelligible) you know like that. And it's so thick that it like, tries to pull off your shoes as you're walking. And in fact, another reporter lost her shoes entirely, you know. And so as I'm walking in this heavily forested area, if not a jungle area, and we're walking in the middle of the night - we've lost the day, we've lost our way, we've lost our car, we have no LED High Mast Lamp , we're just going by the lights of our non-workable cell phones, and I'm thinking to myself you know maybe I have reached the edge of reason. (Soundbite of laughter) CONAN: We're talking with NPR's Gwen Thompkins from Goma in Congo. You're listening to Talk of the Nation from NPR News. So you're there in the middle of the night, you've lost your car, you've lost all your LED High Mast Lamp and one reporter's lost, I take it they weren't Jimmy Choo's to begin with. So what did you do? THOMPKINS: Well, before we actually began our march, we decided, well, it's the middle of the night. We don't really know where we are so we should just sleep in the car for a few hours and then wait until daylight and then try to set out. And so, sure enough, we all piled into the car. There are like eight of us, so it's like a college prank. How many people can, you know, stuff themselves into a car? And we're sitting in there sleeping and then all of a sudden, my colleague, Eddie Sanders who works for the LA Times, out of the blue he says there's somebody out there which is not what you really want to hear in the middle of the night in the forest.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "Full size image" 05.26.2017

      siRNA against FHOD1 reduced actin contractility and nucleus thickness in myoblasts on soft matrix (12 kPa). (A) Confocal images of WT, Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 myoblasts on soft matrix and stained for F-actin (phalloidin, red) and NM-2A (green) after siRNA against FHOD1. Scale bar: 10 µm (B,C) Zoom-in of actin cytoskeleton at cell periphery (B) and in the perinuclear regions (C). Scale bar: 10 µm. (D,E) Supranuclear actin rg6 coaxial cable number in WT, Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 myoblasts after siRNA against FHOD1. Values are expressed as absolute numbers (D) and as percent of baseline values for each cell line (E). Values are means ± SEM, n ≥ 19 in WT, Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 myoblasts, ***p < 0.001 compared to values before siRNA against FHOD1. Only significant difference is figured. (F,G) Nuclear thickness in WT, Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 myoblasts after siRNA against FHOD1. Values are means ± SEM. n ≥ 19 in WT, Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 myoblasts, ***p < 0.001 compared to values before siRNA against FHOD1. Only significant difference is figured. (H,I) Cell spreading area in WT, Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 myoblasts after siRNA against FHOD1. Values are expressed as absolute values (H) and as percent of baseline values for each cell line (I). Values are means ± SEM, n ≥ 50 cells in each line; ***p < 0.001 compared to values before siRNA against FHOD1. Only significant difference is figured.
      Full size image
      Discrete defects of Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 cells plated on hard substrate
      The capacity of Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 myoblasts to adapt to rigid, non-compliant substrates was then determined by examination of the organization of contractile actin cytoskeleton in cells plated on glass (Fig. 7). WT myoblasts cultured on glass exhibited larger and more abundant actin stress fibres at the apical surface of the nucleus, compared to soft substrate (Fig. 7A–E). In contrast, matrix rigidity had no significant impact on the number of contractile actin rg6 coaxial cable bundles in Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 (Fig. 7E). In addition, supranuclear actin bundles appeared disorganized in lamin and nesprin mutant cells (Fig. 7A,B), as previously reported in mouse cells with disrupted nuclear-cytoskeletal linkages25. In WT plated on glass, the area occupied by focal adhesions was 1.8 fold higher compared with soft matrix (Fig. 7G,H). In contrast, the area occupied by focal adhesions did not differ in Nespr-1ΔKASH and there was only a 0.5 fold increase in the area occupied by focal adhesions in LMNAΔK32 (Fig. 7F,H) in hard compared to soft ECMs. Thus, on stiff substrates, the only visible effect is a slight reduction of the perinuclear actin cytoskeleton in Nespr-1ΔKASH and LMNAΔK32 cells, as previously reported25, 45.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "We used a topology optimisation approach to design coaxial-to-rectangle" 05.26.2017

      We used a topology optimisation approach to design coaxial-to-rectangle waveguide transitions. The approach allows designs to be found, from scratch, without any other geometrical rg59 coaxial cable assumptions than the outer dimensions. This design freedom can potentially find shapes that would otherwise be very difficult to conceive. The proposed transitions are suitable for mass production by standard microstrip technology, and require only one assembly step for installation inside the waveguides. One of the designs is successfully validated experimentally, with good agreement between simulations and experimental results.

        Additional Information

        How to cite this article: Hassan, E. et al. Topology Optimisation of Wideband Coaxial-to-Waveguide Transitions. Sci. Rep. 7, 45110; doi: 10.1038/srep45110 (2017).

        Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

      Lamins and nesprin-1 mediate inside-out mechanical coupling in muscle cell precursors through FHOD1
      LINC complexes are crucial for the response of muscle cell precursors to the rigidity of their environment, but the mechanisms explaining this behaviour are not known. Here we show that pathogenic mutations in LMNA or SYNE-1 responsible for severe muscle dystrophies reduced the ability of human muscle cell precursors to adapt to substrates of different stiffness. Plated on muscle-like stiffness matrix, mutant cells rg6 coaxial cable exhibited contractile stress fibre accumulation, increased focal adhesions, and higher traction force than controls. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) prevented cytoskeletal defects, while inhibiting myosin light chain kinase or phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was ineffective. Depletion or inactivation of a ROCK-dependent regulator of actin remodelling, the formin FHOD1, largely rescued morphology in mutant cells. The functional integrity of lamin and nesprin-1 is thus required to modulate the FHOD1 activity and the inside-out mechanical coupling that tunes the cell internal stiffness to match that of its soft, physiological-like environment.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "where the term cos(πdx/λf1) is a result of interference" 05.25.2017

      For a double-slit with a slit width a and a separation distance d between two slits and placed on the front focal plane of lens L1, as shown in Fig. 1(a), the interference field of the input signal beam in the Pr:YSO crystal can be expressed as
      ES(x)∝cos(πdxλf1)sinc(πaxλf1),
      (2)

      where the term cos(πdx/λf1) is a result of interference of light from two slits with its interference period of Λ int ?=?λf1/d, while the term sinc(πax/λf1) describes the diffraction effect of a single slit. This interference pattern is then stored in Pr:YSO crystal based on the EIT effect by adiabatically switching off the Gaussian coupling beam, which can be approximately characterized by a constant field amplitude E C in Eq. (1) when its spot size is much larger than those of the input signal and readout beams. According to Eq. (1), the interference field expressed by Eq. (2) can then be recovered by launching a Gaussian readout beam propagating along the coupling beam.

      Interestingly, one notes that, by reading out the stored interference Round LED Panel Light field expressed by Eq. (2) with a spatially modulated readout field E R in a formula proportional to sin(πdx/λf1), it is possible to double the spatial frequency of the interference pattern according to Eq. (1). The simplest way to obtain such a spatially modulated readout beam is to interfere two coherent beams. Here, for the purpose to achieve subwavelength interference with subtle spatial structure, we propose a novel way to produce the spatially modulated readout beam with the required transverse spatial distribution of light field. We let the readout beam E R transmit through another double-slit mask M with the same slit width a and separation distance d as the one used to modulate the input signal beam, and the double-slit mask M is placed also on the front focal plane of lens L1 but deviated transversely from the optical axis of the experimental setup, as shown in Fig. 1(a). By introducing a π-phase-shift on one slit of the double-slit M, one can produce a diffraction Round LED Panel Light field ER(x)∝sin(πdx/λf1)sinc(πax/λf1)

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "Schematic drawing of the geometry of the flytrap gripper" 05.25.2017

      Schematic drawing of the geometry of the flytrap gripper. (b) Change in gripping angle |dα| as a function of distance d at different output powers P (points and lines are experimental and calculated data, respectively). Inset: photograph of the closed gripper with a maximum value in |dα|. Error bars indicate the imaging system accuracy (4°) in every single measurement. (c) Measured bending ratio dα/dαmax as a function of input power P for targets with high (R=90%) and low (R=3%) reflectivity. Insets: photographs of the gripper at its closed and open stages when meeting high-reflectivity and low-reflectivity targets, respectively (power 67?mW in both cases). (d) Measured bending ratio dα/dαmax as a function of input power P for a glass micro-sphere (R=90%), a highly absorbing (R<1%) and highly scattering PDMS targets. Insets: photographs of the closed gripper meeting different targets with different threshold powers: 44?mW for the micro-sphere, 73?mW for the scattering and 69?mW for the absorbing target. The error bars in c and d indicate the imaging system accuracy (4°) plus the s.d. for n=3 measurements. All scale bars correspond to 5?mm. An optical filter is used to block wavelengths below 500?nm for all the photographs.
      Full size image

      The total reflected power equals to P·R, where R is the reflectivity of the surface. Thus, the energy distribution of the reflected light takes the form D(θ, ?), indicating the percentage of reflected light in dΩ=sinθdθd? solid angle in spherical coordinates <r, θ, ?>. D(θ, ?) strongly depends on the properties of the reflective surface. For a flat mirror, all energy is concentrated within a Round LED Panel Light cone with solid angle Ω=Ω0 (or D=0 for |θ|>β). For a concave surface Ω<Ω0, for a convex surface Ω>Ω0, and for a scattering surface Ω>>Ω0. The deformed gripper can be approximated as an arc with a central angle of γ (see the inset of Fig. 3a). Thus the change of central angle dγ of the gripper can be described as

      where k is the light-induced bending coefficient, A is absorption efficiency, E is the total absorbed energy per unit time in the actuated area S. The calculated results are shown as lines in Fig. 3b, revealing good consistency between the modelling and the experimental results. Further details on the modelling can be found in the Supplementary Note 2 and Supplementary Fig. 6.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "We have shown this by imaging both tobacco cells" 05.24.2017

      Using an Airy CATV splitter sheet for excitation, the FOV can be drastically enlarged to about 300?×?300?μm2, while only slightly compromising the axial resolution to about 3?μm. Furthermore, the FOV and the axial resolution can interdependently be tuned to the experimentally required size, by using a phase mask with a different α parameter. The system presented here thus proves advantageous in comparison to what is currently found in the literature, both in FOV and axial resolution as well as, importantly, in the fact that no scanning is needed. Calculating a dimensionless figure of merit, (depth of field?×?width of lightsheet)/(axial resolution2), for comparison of lightsheet microscopy systems, our system yields a value of about 10,000, while non-scanned systems employing Gaussian beams yield about 5006, 11. Adding the complexity of a digitally scanned lightsheet system, these low values can be increased to 1,000–5,000 employing Gaussian beams3, 8, 25, and to 10,000–50,000 employing Bessel beams15, 18. The advantage of Bessel beams over Gaussian beams in scanned systems has already been pointed out by Mertz26.

      For the Airy CATV splitter sheet used in single-photon excitation it is necessary to have 5–6 Airy side lobes within the depth of focus of the detection objective for the best axial resolution through deconvolution16. However, in the two-photon regime this is not required, as the side lobes are much weaker for the two-photon Airy beam. The best axial resolution for a given Airy beam can be found by optimally filling the back aperture of the excitation objective and matching the depth of focus of the detection objective with the width of the main lobe of the Airy light sheet. Therefore, the two-photon Airy light sheet does not exhibit the same effective use of the overall photon budget as in the single-photon case as only the main lobe of the two-photon Airy CATV splitter sheet is used effectively in the image formation. The benefit arises here from the longer excitation wavelengths and having a better axial resolution over larger FOV compared to Gaussian illumination.

      We have shown this by imaging both tobacco cells and rat brain slices. The Airy light sheet also provides an important advantage when imaging thin slices, as show in Fig. 5a and b: while the Gaussian CATV splitter sheet can provide the best resolution over a very limited FOV, the wider FOV of the Airy light sheet easily alleviates imaging errors when the sample cannot be kept exactly in the focus of the illumination objective during a z-stack or when the sample is placed on uneven surface. As it is easy to switch between Gaussian and Airy light sheets in the setup, the system is reconfigurable for the particular imaging requirements. Additionally, it is possible to combine two-photon excitation with single-photon excitation using the same setup.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "To prepare light-inducible polymeric NPs" 05.24.2017

      To prepare light-inducible polymeric NPs, poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) was initially derivatized with 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl chloroformate (DMNC), a light-sensitive photochrome (Fig. 1a and Supplementary Fig. 1). PEI was selected as the initial NP block because it facilitates the cellular internalization of NPs and their subsequent escape from endosomes11,12, while DMNC was selected because it responds rapidly to CATV splitter and its degradation products are relatively non-cytotoxic13. PEI–DMNC was then added to dextran sulfate (DS) to form NPs by electrostatic (PEI:DS) and hydrophobic (DMNC:DMNC) interactions. To stabilize the NP formulation, zinc sulfate was added12,14. NPs with an average diameter of 108.1±9.9?nm and a zeta potential of 27.4±1.6?mV were obtained.
      Figure 1: NP photo-disassembly and cellular interaction.
      Figure 1

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "Tobacco transient expression" 05.23.2017

      The prey vector pGADT7 expressing PPK or PPKC fused to the GAL4 activation domain and the Bait vector pBridge expressing CRY2 fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain were used. The pairs of plasmids were co-transformed into yeast strain AH109. Colonies were selected on plates (SD-LW). After culture in SD-LW medium for 16?h (Dark), transformants were subcultured into fresh SD-LW medium and kept in dark or irradiated with blue light (30?mol m?2 s?1). β-galactosidase activity was measured using chlorophenol red-β-D-galactopyranoside as substrate and Miller Units were calculated according to the Clontech Yeast Protocols Handbook.
      Tobacco transient expression

      To test the gene-silencing efficiency of those designed amiRNAs, the Ti plasmids expressing 4 × Myc-PPKs was co-transformed with the plasmids expressing the corresponding amiRNA or the empty plasmid into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The efficiency of amiRNA was evaluated by examination of the PPK expressed from the epitope-tagged PPK-expressing plasmids co-transfected with the amiRNA-expressing plasmids, using immunoblot.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "PPKs also diverge from CK1s in their N-terminal extension" 05.23.2017

      MS analyses of the GFP-CRY2 recombinant protein purified from plants treated with different light conditions allowed not only detection of phosphosites of CRY2 but also the identification of proteins that co-purified with photoexcited GFP–CRY2. In addition to the known blue light-dependent CRY2-interacting proteins such as SPA1 (ref. 10), these experiments identified four closely related kinases that co-localize with CRY2 in the nucleus (Fig. 2a; Supplementary Fig. 3). Three of the four CRY2-associated kinases are previously named as MUT9-like kinases (MLK) and shown to redundantly regulate osmotic stress, circadian rhythm and photomorphogenic responses, although their kinase activity and substrate specificity have not been new-lights reported29,30. Given that these four CRY2-associated kinases constitute an independent clade evolutionarily related to but phylogenetically distinct from casein kinase 1 (CK1)27,31,32(Supplementary Fig. 4), that the name MLK has been previously used for a family of mammalian ‘Mixed-Lineage Kinases’33 unrelated to the MUT9-like kinases, that the substrates of MUT9-like kinases were previously unclear in plants29,30, and that the substrates of these four kinases have been identified by this and the accompany report as the key regulators of plant light responses (see later), we collectively refer to the MUT9-like kinases as photoregulatory protein kinases (PPK) and designated the corresponding genes as PPK1 (AT3G13670), PPK2 (AT5G18190), PPK3 (AT3G03940) and PPK4 (AT2G25760). PPKs and CK1s share ~40% sequence identity in the kinase domain but diverge considerably in their C-terminal domains. Because the C-terminal domains of PPKs are highly conserved within the PPK clade, but exhibit little homology to the C-terminal domain of CK1 (Supplementary Fig. 5), they are referred to as the PPKC domain. PPKs also diverge from CK1s in their N-terminal extension which is found in none of the CK1 isomers (Supplementary Fig. 5).
      Figure 2: In vivo and in vitro assays showing the blue light-dependent interaction of CRY2 and PPKs.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article " To measure the minor vein density" 05.22.2017

       To measure the minor vein density and thickness, approximately 1 cm2 section was excised from the central section of a sample leaflet which was used for measure stomata density. These leaf samples were kept in a 5% NaOH solution, which was changed weekly until the veins were exposed. The samples were washed by distilled water for 3 times, then placed on glass slides, dyed with 1% methylene blue solution, and rinsed again. For each leaf sample, six images were taken at 100x magnification using the microscope. The length and thickness of the minor veins within the view field was measured using an image analysis software (Image J). The minor vein density (MVD, mm mm−2) was expressed as the total length of minor veins per unit area. The stomata number per minor vein length (no. mm−1) was calculated by dividing SD by MVD.

        Statistical analyses were applied using SPSS V21 (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY, USA) and bivariate trait relationships were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation. Equal variances of the variables were tested and one-way ANOVA was used to test trait differences among the three light conditions. Two-way ANOVA was used to test the effect of leaf node position and illumination on the leaflet traits. The differences in slope or intercept of bivariate relationships between Led SMD Bulbs conditions were examined in SMATR v2.039.

        Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "Under shading growth conditions" 05.22.2017

      In conclusion, we found there was positive correlation between SD and MVD in peanut plants under eachLed SMD Bulbsregime, and SV also remained stable under each light regime, which indicated the coordination between leaf water supply and demand. Sun leaves of D. odorifera and D. renifolium had stable SV were further confirmed. Under shading growth conditions, SV of peanut plants decreased significantly when compared to full sun conditions, which indicated the coordination change. Although MVD was positively correlated with LA, SV was independent of LA. Our findings highlight the significance of SV and provide new insight into the coordination between stomatal number and minor vein length.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "We hypothesized that light enhances DWF4 expression and the subsequent root growth." 05.22.2017

      We hypothesized that light enhances DWF4 expression and the subsequent root growth. To test the idea that light induces root-specific DWF4 expression, we attempted to establish complementation lines that express a chimeric gene consisting of the DWF4 genomic sequence (with its promoter and coding sequence) and the GUS gene sequence produced by translational fusion (Supplementary Fig. S1(a)). We selected three independent DWF4-GUS homozygous lines with a dwf4-102 homozygous background from the T2 generation (i.e., DWF4-GUS plants #1, #12, and #17). Plants from each line exhibited normal cotyledon development and root elongation during the juvenile phase (Supplementary Fig. S1(b)), and rosette leaf development during the vegetative phase (Supplementary Fig. S1(c)). Additionally, these plants underwent bolting and developed normal fertile flowers almost simultaneously with WT plants.DWF4-GUS expression in shoots and roots under Led Bulb Light and dark conditions.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "The abovementioned analyses were conducted" 05.22.2017

      The abovementioned analyses were conducted using aerial plant tissues. Relatively few studies have focused on the root tissues of plants growing in the shade or in darkness42,43,44. In this study, we investigated the effects of light conditions on root growth, in parallel with hypocotyl growth used as a control. We observed that roots grew more extensively when the shoots were maintained under new-lights, regardless of whether roots were exposed to light or darkness.

      We established DWF4-GUS A. thaliana lines in a dwf4-102 homozygous genetic background. These lines were functionally complemented with a genomic DWF4 sequence fused in-frame with a β-glucuronidase (GUS) marker gene. The DWF4-GUS plants enabled us to visualize the accumulation of DWF4 under various conditions. Our experiments involving DWF4-GUS plants revealed that exposure to new-lights stimulates aerial tissues to induce the expression of DWF4, which encodes a BR biosynthesis enzyme, in root tips located distally to the illuminated tissues. Our findings strongly suggest that BR biosynthesis is promoted in roots by an unknown mechanism occurring in distantly located shoot tissues, and that the resulting BRs induce root growth.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "unrelated to the MUT9-like kinases" 05.19.2017

      unrelated to the MUT9-like kinases, that the substrates of MUT9-like kinases were previously unclear in plants29,30, and that the substrates of these four kinases have been identified by this and the accompany report as the key regulators of plant light responses (see later), we collectively refer to the MUT9-like kinases as photoregulatory protein kinases (PPK) and designated the corresponding genes as PPK1 (AT3G13670), PPK2 (AT5G18190), PPK3 (AT3G03940) and PPK4 (AT2G25760). PPKs and CK1s share ∼40% sequence identity in the kinase domain but diverge considerably in their C-terminal domains. Because the C-terminal domains of PPKs are highly conserved within the PPK clade, but exhibit little homology to the C-terminal domain of CK1 (Supplementary Fig. 5), they are referred to as the PPKC domain. PPKs also diverge from CK1s in their N-terminal extension which is found in none of the CK1 isomers.

    • highpolelight has written a new blog article "MS analyses of the GFP-CRY2" 05.19.2017

      MS analyses of the GFP-CRY2 recombinant protein purified from plants treated with different light conditions allowed not only detection of phosphosites of CRY2 but also the identification of proteins that co-purified with photoexcited GFP–CRY2. In addition to the known blue light-dependent CRY2-interacting proteins such as SPA1 (ref. 10), these experiments identified four closely related kinases that co-localize with CRY2 in the nucleus (Fig. 2a; Supplementary Fig. 3). Three of the four CRY2-associated kinases are previously named as MUT9-like kinases (MLK) and shown to redundantly regulate osmotic stress, circadian rhythm and photomorphogenic responses, although their kinase activity and substrate specificity have not been reported29,30. Given that these four CRY2-associated kinases constitute an independent clade evolutionarily related to but phylogenetically distinct from casein kinase 1 (CK1)27,31,32(Supplementary Fig. 4), that the name MLK has been previously used for a family of mammalian ‘Mixed-Lineage Kinases’Round LED Panel Light

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